Selected journal articles and books

Note: the views expressed in the articles and books below do not necessarily reflect the positions of the Code Blue Campaign

Autesserre, Séverine. 2010. The Trouble with the Congo: Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bolkovac, Kathryn, & Cari Lynn. 2011. The Whistleblower: Sex Trafficking, Military Contractors, and One Woman's Fight for Justice. Macmillan.

Boom, Rembert. 2017. "United Nations Security Council Resolution 2272 & Secretary-General Report on Special Measures for Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse, with introductory note by Rembert Boom." International Legal Materials (Vol. 55, no. 4).

Boon, Kristen E. 2019. “Rethinking the Accountability—Immunity Axis through Remedies.” International Organizations Law Review 16: 137-157.

Burke, Róisín. 2014. Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Military Contingents: Moving Beyond the Current Status Quo and Responsibility under International Law. Brill/Martinus Nijhoff.

Burke, Róisín. 2012. “Attribution of Responsibility: Sexual Abuse and Exploitation, and Effective Control of Blue Helmets.” Journal of International Peacekeeping 16(1-2): 1-46.

Deen-Racsmány, Zsuzsanna. 2014. “‘Exclusive’ Criminal Jurisdiction over UN Peacekeepers and the UN Project(s) on Criminal Accountability: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy?” The Military Law and the Law of War Review 53(2): 247-284.

Deen-Racsmány, Zsuzsanna. 2011. ‘The Amended UN Model Memorandum of Understanding: A New Incentive for States to Discipline and Prosecute Military Members of National Peacekeeping Contingents?” Journal of Conflict and Security Law 16(2): 321–355.

Defeis, Elizabeth F. 2008. “U.N. Peacekeepers and Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: An End to Impunity.” Washington University Global Studies Law Review 7(2): 185-214.

Ferstman, Carla. 2019. “Reparations for Mass Torts Involving the United Nations.” International Organizations Law Review 16: 42-67.

Freedman, Rosa. 2014. “UN Immunity or Impunity? A Human Rights Based Challenge.” The European Journal of International Law 25 (1): 239-254.

Gardam, Judith & Michelle Jarvis. 2001. Women, Armed Conflict, and International Law. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.

Grady, Kate. 2010. “Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Peacekeepers: A Threat to Impartiality.” International Peacekeeping 17(2): 215-228.

Grady, Kate. 2016. “Sex, Statistics, Peacekeepers and Power: UN Data on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse and the Quest for Legal Reform.” The Modern Law Review 79(6): 931-960.[1]

Higate, Paul. 2007. “Peacekeepers, Masculinities, and Sexual Exploitation.” Men and Masculinities 10(1): 99-119.

Higate, Paul & Marsha Henry. 2004. “Engendering (In)security in Peace Support Operations.” Security Dialogue 35(4): 481-498.

Jennings, Kathleen. 2014. “Service, sex, and security: Gendered peacekeeping economies in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.” Security Dialogue 45(4): 313-330.

Kanetake, Machiko. 2010. “Whose Zero Tolerance Counts? Reassessing a Zero Tolerance Policy against Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Peacekeepers.” International Peacekeeping 17(2): 200-214.

Karim, Sabrina & Beardsley, Kyle. 2016. “Explaining sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping missions.” Journal of Peace Research 53(1):100-115.

Kent, Vanessa. 2005. “Peacekeepers as perpetrators of abuse: Examining the UN's plans to eliminate and address cases of sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping operations”. African Security Review 14(2): 85-92.[1]

Kent, Vanessa. 2007. “Protecting civilians from UN peacekeepers and humanitarian workers: Sexual exploitation and abuse.” In Chiyuki Aoi, Cedric de Cooning and Ramesh Thakur (eds.), The Unintended Consequences of Peace Operations. Tokyo: United Nations University Press: 44-66.

Mégret, Frédéric. 2007. “The Vicarious Responsibility of the United Nations for ‘Unintended Consequences of Peace Operations.’” In Chiyuki Aoi, Cedric de Cooning and Ramesh Thakur (eds.), The Unintended Consequences of Peace Operations. Tokyo: United Nations University Press: 250-267.

Mégret, Frédéric. 2019. “Beyond UN Accountability for Human Rights Violations.” International Organizations Law Review 16: 68-104.

Miller, Anthony J. 2006. “Legal Aspects of Stopping Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in U.N. Peacekeeping Operations.” Cornell Journal of International Law 39: 71-96.

Murphy, Ray. 2006. “An Assessment of UN Efforts to Address Sexual Misconduct by Peacekeeping Personnel.” International Peacekeeping 13(4): 531-546.

Ndulo, Muna. 2009. “The United Nations Responses to the Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Women and Girls by Peacekeepers during Peacekeeping Missions.” Berkeley Journal of International Law 27(1): 127-161.

Ndulo, Muna. 2015, June 22. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation in Conflict Situations as a Security Risk. E-International Relations,

Neudorfer, Kelly. 2014. “Reducing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse: Does Deterrence Work to Prevent SEAs in UN Peacekeeping Missions?” International Peacekeeping 21(5): 623-641.

Nordås, Ragnhild & Rustad, Siri. 2013. “Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers: Understanding Variation.” International Interactions 39(4): 511-534.

Odello, Marco. 2010. “Tackling Criminal Acts in Peacekeeping Operations: The Accountability of Peacekeepers.” Journal of Conflict and Security Law 15(2): 347–391.

Quenivet, Noelle. 2007. “The Dissonance between the United Nations Zero-Tolerance Policy and the Criminalisation of Sexual Offences on the International Level.”  International Criminal Law Review 7: 657-676.

Simm, Gabrielle. 2011. “International Law as a Regulatory Framework for Sexual Crimes Committed by Peacekeepers.” Journal of Conflict and Security Law: 16 (3): 473-506.

Simm, Gabrielle. 2013. Sex in Peace Operations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Westendorf, Jasmine-Kim, & Louise Searle. 2017. “Sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations: trends, policy responses and future directions.” International Affairs: 365-387.