Selected journal articles and books
Note: the views expressed in the articles and books below do not necessarily reflect the positions of the Code Blue Campaign
Autesserre, Séverine. 2010. The Trouble with the Congo: Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://www.cambridge.org/ca/academic/subjects/politics-international-relations/comparative-politics/trouble-congo-local-violence-and-failure-international-peacebuilding.
Bolkovac, Kathryn, & Cari Lynn. 2011. The Whistleblower: Sex Trafficking, Military Contractors, and One Woman's Fight for Justice. Macmillan. https://us.macmillan.com/books/9780230115224.
Boom, Rembert. 2017. "United Nations Security Council Resolution 2272 & Secretary-General Report on Special Measures for Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse, with introductory note by Rembert Boom." International Legal Materials (Vol. 55, no. 4). https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2930528.
Boon, Kristen E. 2019. “Rethinking the Accountability—Immunity Axis through Remedies.” International Organizations Law Review 16: 137-157. https://brill.com/view/journals/iolr/16/1/article-p137_137.xml.
Burke, Róisín. 2014. Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Military Contingents: Moving Beyond the Current Status Quo and Responsibility under International Law. Brill/Martinus Nijhoff. www.brill.com/products/book/sexual-exploitation-and-abuse-un-military-contingents.
Burke, Róisín. 2012. “Attribution of Responsibility: Sexual Abuse and Exploitation, and Effective Control of Blue Helmets.” Journal of International Peacekeeping 16(1-2): 1-46. http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/187541111x613597.
Deen-Racsmány, Zsuzsanna. 2014. “‘Exclusive’ Criminal Jurisdiction over UN Peacekeepers and the UN Project(s) on Criminal Accountability: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy?” The Military Law and the Law of War Review 53(2): 247-284.
Deen-Racsmány, Zsuzsanna. 2011. ‘The Amended UN Model Memorandum of Understanding: A New Incentive for States to Discipline and Prosecute Military Members of National Peacekeeping Contingents?” Journal of Conflict and Security Law 16(2): 321–355. http://jcsl.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/2/321.short.
Defeis, Elizabeth F. 2008. “U.N. Peacekeepers and Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: An End to Impunity.” Washington University Global Studies Law Review 7(2): 185-214. https://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1109&context=law_globalstudies.
Ferstman, Carla. 2019. “Reparations for Mass Torts Involving the United Nations.” International Organizations Law Review 16: 42-67. https://brill.com/view/journals/iolr/16/1/article-p42_42.xml.
Freedman, Rosa. 2014. “UN Immunity or Impunity? A Human Rights Based Challenge.” The European Journal of International Law 25 (1): 239-254. http://ejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/1/239.short.
Gardam, Judith & Michelle Jarvis. 2001. Women, Armed Conflict, and International Law. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Grady, Kate. 2010. “Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Peacekeepers: A Threat to Impartiality.” International Peacekeeping 17(2): 215-228. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13533311003625100.
Grady, Kate. 2016. “Sex, Statistics, Peacekeepers and Power: UN Data on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse and the Quest for Legal Reform.” The Modern Law Review 79(6): 931-960. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-2230.12225/abstract.
Higate, Paul. 2007. “Peacekeepers, Masculinities, and Sexual Exploitation.” Men and Masculinities 10(1): 99-119. http://jmm.sagepub.com/content/10/1/99.abstract.
Higate, Paul & Marsha Henry. 2004. “Engendering (In)security in Peace Support Operations.” Security Dialogue 35(4): 481-498. http://sdi.sagepub.com/content/35/4/481.short.
Jennings, Kathleen. 2014. “Service, sex, and security: Gendered peacekeeping economies in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.” Security Dialogue 45(4): 313-330. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0967010614537330.
Kanetake, Machiko. 2010. “Whose Zero Tolerance Counts? Reassessing a Zero Tolerance Policy against Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Peacekeepers.” International Peacekeeping 17(2): 200-214. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13533311003625092.
Karim, Sabrina & Beardsley, Kyle. 2016. “Explaining sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping missions.” Journal of Peace Research 53(1):100-115. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0022343315615506.
Kent, Vanessa. 2005. “Peacekeepers as perpetrators of abuse: Examining the UN's plans to eliminate and address cases of sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping operations”. African Security Review 14(2): 85-92. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10246029.2005.9627358?journalCode=rasr20.
Kent, Vanessa. 2007. “Protecting civilians from UN peacekeepers and humanitarian workers: Sexual exploitation and abuse.” In Chiyuki Aoi, Cedric de Cooning and Ramesh Thakur (eds.), The Unintended Consequences of Peace Operations. Tokyo: United Nations University Press: 44-66.
Mégret, Frédéric. 2007. “The Vicarious Responsibility of the United Nations for ‘Unintended Consequences of Peace Operations.’” In Chiyuki Aoi, Cedric de Cooning and Ramesh Thakur (eds.), The Unintended Consequences of Peace Operations. Tokyo: United Nations University Press: 250-267.
Mégret, Frédéric. 2019. “Beyond UN Accountability for Human Rights Violations.” International Organizations Law Review 16: 68-104. https://brill.com/view/journals/iolr/16/1/article-p68_68.xml.
Miller, Anthony J. 2006. “Legal Aspects of Stopping Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in U.N. Peacekeeping Operations.” Cornell Journal of International Law 39: 71-96. http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/cintl39&div=9&id=&page=.
Murphy, Ray. 2006. “An Assessment of UN Efforts to Address Sexual Misconduct by Peacekeeping Personnel.” International Peacekeeping 13(4): 531-546. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13533310600988820.
Ndulo, Muna. 2009. “The United Nations Responses to the Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Women and Girls by Peacekeepers during Peacekeeping Missions.” Berkeley Journal of International Law 27(1): 127-161. http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/bjil/vol27/iss1/5.
Ndulo, Muna. 2015, June 22. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation in Conflict Situations as a Security Risk. E-International Relations, https://www.e-ir.info/2015/06/22/sexual-abuse-and-sexual-exploitation-in-conflict-situations-as-a-security-risk/.
Neudorfer, Kelly. 2014. “Reducing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse: Does Deterrence Work to Prevent SEAs in UN Peacekeeping Missions?” International Peacekeeping 21(5): 623-641. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13533312.2014.976996?journalCode=finp20.
Nordås, Ragnhild & Rustad, Siri. 2013. “Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers: Understanding Variation.” International Interactions 39(4): 511-534. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03050629.2013.805128?journalCode=gini20.
Odello, Marco. 2010. “Tackling Criminal Acts in Peacekeeping Operations: The Accountability of Peacekeepers.” Journal of Conflict and Security Law 15(2): 347–391. http://jcsl.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/2/347.short.
Quenivet, Noelle. 2007. “The Dissonance between the United Nations Zero-Tolerance Policy and the Criminalisation of Sexual Offences on the International Level.” International Criminal Law Review 7: 657-676. http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/156753607x241256.
Simm, Gabrielle. 2011. “International Law as a Regulatory Framework for Sexual Crimes Committed by Peacekeepers.” Journal of Conflict and Security Law: 16 (3): 473-506. http://jcsl.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/3/473.short.
Simm, Gabrielle. 2013. Sex in Peace Operations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/sex-in-peace-operations/122BC274056274328E2ECC20E1775683.
Westendorf, Jasmine-Kim, & Louise Searle. 2017. “Sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations: trends, policy responses and future directions.” International Affairs: 365-387. https://academic.oup.com/ia/article-abstract/93/2/365/2982811/Sexual-exploitation-and-abuse-in-peace-operations?redirectedFrom=fulltext.